SPIKE™ Prime Set

# Aim for It

Use variable speed to explore kinetic energy during a movement.

45-90 min.

## Prepare for Blended Learning

### (Before the Lesson)

• Watch the lesson video on this page.
• Read through the pupil material for this lesson in the SPIKE App or via the link on this page.
• You might wish to consider:
• Choosing the right tool(s) and the right place. For example, watching videos, reading a textbook or preparing for a hands-on experience can easily be done at home. Performing the experiment and collecting data ‘hands-on’ is easier in a classroom setting.
• Using a variety of tools and allowing for broad differentiation. This will increase your pupils' engagement and improve their learning outcomes.
• Providing various methods of virtual collaboration. Here are some examples:
• Videoconferencing
• Blogs, chats or wall posts
• Digital versions of pupil worksheets
• Adapting the lesson flow to account for not being in a classroom setting throughout the entire lesson. We have provided an example lesson flow below.
• Here are some other ways you can adapt the lesson flow to suit your pupils’ needs:
• Have your pupils watch the videos describing what they are about to do. You can point them to the SPIKE App or use the pupil worksheet URL.
• Provide other material that you have already prepared on this topic.
• Customise the Inventor Notebook to have your pupils prepare their learning experience and reflect on their findings (please see Additional Resources).
• Use the lesson brief (a printable 1-page lesson overview) to inspire your pupils with an open-ended challenge (please see Additional Resources).

## Engage

### (Before Class, 20 Min.)

• This lesson explores how kinetic energy relates to speed and mass. Your pupils will perform an experiment focusing on measuring the distance that has been travelled over time. They will use wheel rotation as input. Using a graph that shows a wheel’s rotations over time, they will trace a graph showing the distance that has been travelled over a period of time, and then graph the speed over time. Finally, they will use the maximum speed value to calculate the kinetic energy using this formula: Ek = ½mv2 m = 305 g
• Use various materials to engage your pupils on the topic of kinetic energy.

Ignite a Discussion
Start a discussion by asking questions related to the lesson. Here are a few suggestions:

• What does the graph showing the distance that was travelled over time look like?
• What does the graph showing the speed over time look like?
• What does the graph showing the kinetic energy over time look like?

Have your pupils write down their thoughts as a hypothesis.

## Explore

### (During the Lesson, 30 Min.)

• Have your pupils build a vehicle with free-moving wheels. It must also be able to count wheel rotations. They can create their own models or follow the building instructions in the app to build the Street Curling Rock model.
• Ask your pupils to try out their models using the suggested program.
• Have them trace a graph of the distance that has been travelled over time, and describe what they see:
• What do the spikes in the graph represent?
• Why does the space between the spikes increase as time goes by?

## Explain

### (During the Lesson, 15 Min.)

• Have your pupils continue the experiment by:
• Converting the rotations per seconds into distance
• Converting the distance that has been travelled over time into speed
• Allow your pupils some time to adjust their programs to improve their performance.
• Encourage them to record as much data as possible during their experiments.
• Have them export their data as a CSV file so that they can manipulate it using other software if they wish.

## Elaborate

### (After the Lesson, 20 Min.)

• If your pupils still have access to their SPIKE Prime Sets, have them complete the tasks given in the SPIKE App. This will help them to elaborate on their learning with a bit of hands-on activity. Here are some examples:
• Have your pupils play a game while logging the performance of their throws. Tell them to push their street curling rocks, attempting to have the front of the model stop as close to the centre of the target as is possible. Explain that each pupil or team has 3 goes. They must measure the distance the centre of the target to the front of their model after each attempt. The pupil or team with the smallest cumulative distance after 3 goes wins the game!
• If your pupils do not have access to their sets, have them complete their Inventor Notebooks, or assign one of the extension activities that has been suggested below. Most of the extension activities can be done using the data that was collected during the hands-on session
• Facilitate a sharing session in which your pupils exchange information. This can be done using whichever method/tool is the most efficient (i.e. in-person or online).

## Evaluate

• Give feedback on each pupil's performance.
• To simplify the process, you can use the assessment rubrics that have been provided.

## Assessment Opportunities

Teacher Observation Checklist
Establish a scale that suits your needs, for example:

Partially accomplished
Fully accomplished
Overachieved

Use the following success criteria to evaluate your pupils' progress:

• The pupils can program a device that logs data on a line graph.
• The pupils can interpret the values coming from the line graph.
• The pupils can explain kinetic energy in relation to speed.

Self-Assessment
Have each pupil choose the brick that they feel best represents their performance.

• Blue: I am able to graph data using the program that has been provided in the app.
• Yellow: I am able to create my own line graph and explain my results.
• Violet: I have created new experiments on my own.

Peer Feedback

Encourage your pupils to provide feedback to one another by:

Having one pupil use the coloured brick scale above to score another pupil’s performance.
Asking them to present constructive feedback to one another so that they can improve their group’s performance during the next lesson. This is an excellent opportunity to use videoconferencing tools or blog posting tools in a blended learning scenario.

## Differentiation

Simplify this lesson by:

• Limiting the lesson's focus to variations in the distance that has been travelled over time

Take this lesson to the next level by:

• Asking your pupils to design and build their own freewheeling vehicles and curling rocks, repeat the experiment, and compare their data to another model’s performance (e.g. a classmate’s model)
• Having your pupils design and build their own pushing devices that can provide more regular throws, and document the design process

## Tips

Building Tips

Coding Tips
This lesson is designed to be played in Download Mode. The Download Mode allows for a higher sample rate of data collection by the Hub. This means that the line graph has a better resolution. It also means that the data set must be imported after the program has been stopped.

Using the Stop Block to Automatically Transfer Data Sets
If your device is connected via Bluetooth, using this block will end your program and trigger the collected data sets to be uploaded from the Hub to your device. If you are using a USB connection, you must manually upload the data sets to your device.

Main Program

Science Data Tips
Here is an example of the data your pupils can expect from this experiment.

## Extensions

Maths Extension

To incorporate the development of maths skills:

• Have your pupils explore what happens when they change their curling rock's mass by adding elements (e.g. motors) or a heavy object (e.g. a water bottle). Ask them to update their models, rerun the experiment and compare the graphs showing the speed over time for the different masses.

Note: This will require additional time.

Language Arts Extension

To incorporate the development of language arts skills:

• Ask your pupils to create a marketing campaign promoting the key features of their models. Tell them to include the model's technical characteristics and use scientific facts related to the concepts of speed and energy to highlight their benefits.

Note: This will require additional time.

The pupils who enjoyed this lesson might be interested in exploring these career pathways:

• Education & Training
• Health Science

## Teacher Support

The pupils will:

• Calculate the initial speed for a decelerating movement from a graph showing the distance that is been travelled over time
• Use this approximated speed to calculate the average kinetic energy

LEGO® Education SPIKE Prime Set
Device with the LEGO Education SPIKE App installed

ACSIS125
Collaboratively and individually plan and conduct a range of investigation types, including fieldwork and experiments, ensuring safety and ethical guidelines are followed.

ACSSU155
Energy appears in different forms, including movement (kinetic energy), heat and potential energy, and energy transformations and transfers cause change within systems.

ACMNA208
Solve problems involving direct proportion. Explore the relationship between graphs and equations corresponding to simple rate problems.

ACMNA193
Plot linear relationships on the Cartesian plane with and without the use of digital Technologies.

ACMNA194
Solve linear equations using algebraic and graphical techniques. Verify solutions by substitution.

ACMNA178
Given coordinates, plot points on the Cartesian plane, and find coordinates for a given point.

ACELY1725
Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative, and persuasive texts, selecting aspects of subject matter and particular language, visual, and audio features to convey information and ideas.

ACELY1810
Experiment with text structures and language features to refine and clarify ideas to improve the effectiveness of students’ own texts.

ACTDIP017
Define problems in terms of data and functional requirements drawing on previously solved problems.

ACTDIP029
Design algorithms represented diagrammatically and in English, and trace algorithms to predict output for a given input and to identify errors.

ACTDEK034
Analyse ways to produce designed solutions through selecting and combining characteristics and properties of materials, systems, components, tools, and equipment.

## Pupil Material

### Student Worksheet

Download, view or share as an online HTML page or a printable PDF.

## More Questions?

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